Coalition Government and Rebellions

Source: Daily Telegraph 14th November 2014

Screen Shot 2017-05-13 at 12.40.09 PM.pngLords Reform

In July 2012 91 Conservative MPs voted against Lords reform, defying a three-line whip and kiboshing Nick Clegg’s dream of reform to the upper chamber.

A furious David Cameron was reported to have confronted the leader of the rebellion, Jesse Norman MP, just outside the House of Commons division lobbies late on the night of the vote as it became clear that normally loyal Tory MPs were determined to register their opposition.


In August 2013 vote for British air strikes in Syria was defeated in a Commons vote after a rebellion of 31 Tory backbenchers and opposition from the Labour Party.

MPs complained that Britain’s mission in Syria was not clear: was it simply to destroy the regime’s stockpiles of chemical weapons; or to weaken the regime enough to swing the civil war in the rebels’ favour; or to simply send a message that the world would not tolerate chemical weapons attacks? And after that, what? Many asked whether this really had to be Britain’s fight.

It damaged Mr Cameron and made him more cautious over such votes in the future. A key reason British airstrikes against ISIS are now limited to Iraq not Syria is because the Prime Minister was not willing to risk losing again.

EU Budget

On 31 October 2012 Mark Reckless, the Conservative MP who has since defected to Ukip was credited with masterminding the coalition’s first Commons defeat leading 53 Tory rebels to join with Labour to back a motion demanding a real terms cut in the European Union budget.

The vote came as an embarrassment to David Cameron on the eve of crucial talks in Brussels but the Prime Minister has since negotiated the first real-terms cut in the EU budget.

Gay marriage

The Prime Minister suffered one of his biggest rebellions over gay marriage with 134 of his MPs voting against in May last year.

Mr Cameron was in the Commons to hear that the bill had passed by 366 to 161 and despite the rebellion there was applause in the House when the result was announced.

Afterwards Mr Cameron said that there were “young boys in schools today who are gay” who will “stand a little bit taller today and I am proud of the fact that that has happened.”

Nicky Morgan, the Education Secretary and equalities minister, voted against the move but has since said she has changed her mind and would back it if voting again.

European referendum

In October 2011 a total 79 of his MPs voted for a Commons motion calling for a referendum on Britain’s relationship with the EU, even though Mr Cameron had ordered his party to oppose it. Two tellers indicated they supported the motion.

In the vote another two Tories voted yes and no, the traditional way of registering an abstention. A further 12 did not vote.

MPs voting against Mr Cameron in such numbers meant that about half of all Conservatives outside the “payroll vote” of ministers and their aides scorned Mr Cameron’s authority.

European referendum, again

In this symbolic expression of deep unease with the Coalition’s European policy, 114 Conservative MPs, including ministerial aides, backed an amendment regretting the omission of a referendum law.

Mr Cameron has promised to hold a referendum by 2017 but many of his MPs say his promise is not enough and only a law will persuade voters that the referendum will happen.

The vote which was believed to be the first time since 1946 that members of a governing party have voted against a Queen’s Speech, and reflected deep Conservative unhappiness with Mr Cameron’s coalition deal with the Liberal Democrats and concern over the inexorable rise of Ukip.


In February 2014 the Prime Minister was faced with a 86-strong rebellion on an amendment to the Immigration Bill.

The amendment, crafted by Dominic Raab, a Eurosceptic Tory rising star, sought to make it easier to deport foreign criminals who claim a right to a family life as protection under the European Convention on Human Rights.

Theresa May said that the amendment would be illegal, but the Tory front bench abstained. In the end the Prime Minister was saved the embarrassment of defeat although he was forced to rely on Labour and Lib Dem votes to quash it.

The worst offenders

Philip Hollobone is top rebel, ignoring party orders 129 times, followed by David Nuttall on 88, Philip Davies on 85 and Peter Bone on 68.

Recent Electoral Systems and Democracy Stats

The following stats and case study examples may be useful if you are doing electoral systems and/or representation and democracy on Unit 1 this summer. Just a month to go now so I hope revision is bedding in well. 

2015 General Election – First Past the Post criticisms

UKIP 12.4% of vote, 1 seat, SNP 4.7 % 56 seats

Also 63.1 % did not vote Conservative, yet they obtained a majority of 12 seats. Conservatives won their majority on just 36.9% of the turnout and just 24.4% of the entire available electorate.

Turnout – 66.1 % – 33.9% abstention. 3rd election in a row there has been an increase but does not compare with 1974 (78%) or even 1997 (72%)

18-24 Turnout 58%

Two parties still dominate Westminster with 85% of the seats for 67% of the vote.

In the 2015 General Election, only 328 MPs (51%) had a ‘majority mandate’, while 322 MPs (49%) had a ‘minority mandate’.

Stoke By-election 2017 – More First Past the post Criticisms

First of all note that the turnout at just 36.7% means 63.3% of the electorate in Stoke did not cast a vote. You could argue that the result therefore lacks legitimacy.

The winning candidate has the positive vote of around just 13% of the entire constituencies electorate, an obvious flaw of FPTP.

In addition 63.91% of all votes cast in this by-election were wasted. So almost 2/3 didn’t vote and of those who did, 2/3rds of the votes did not count. This is one of the biggest flaws in FPTP.

Scottish Parliament Election Results (Additional Member System, AMS) 2016

Conservative 7 FPTP seats for  22% share of the vote

Labour 3 FPTP seats for 22.6% of the vote

Even more bizarrely…

Conservatives 24 seats for  22.9% in the Party list element whilst the SNP got just 4 PArty List seats for 41.7% of the regional vote. This is due to the way the D’hondt formula counterbalances gains in one element against gains in the other.

Welsh Assembly Election Results (Additional Member System, AMS) 2016

Plaid Cymru 6 constituency seats for  21.1% of the constituency votes compared to Lib Dems 1 Constituency seat for  12.5% of the constituency votes

Ukip got 7 regional seats on 13% of the regional vote compared to Labour with  2 regional seats on 31.5% of the regional vote

London Assembly Election (Additional Member System) 2016

Labour London wide vote 40.3% but only 3 seats, Conservatives also 3 seats on Conservative 29.2%  of the London wide vote

Turnout for London Assembly elections – Turnout 45.6% – up from 38.1% in 2012, so AMS would not necessarily remedy the voter apathy problem that FPTP is said to suffer from

Sheffield Brightside and Hillsborough By-Election (First-Past-The-Post)

33.2% – down from 54.8% in the 2015 General Election turnout very low for by-elections.


Judiciary Past Paper Questions

June 2009

How effectively can the judiciary control executive and legislative power in the UK?

JUDICIARIES JANUARY 2010Screen Shot 2017-04-10 at 10.30.39 AM.png



How effectively can the judiciary protect civil liberties in Britain ?

 Judiciaries January 2011


Is the judiciary too powerful, or is it not powerful enough?

JUNE 2011 Judiciaries

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 June 2012 ESSAY 

To what extent do judges protect individual rights and freedoms in the UK?


In what ways, and to what extent, is the Human Rights Act controversial?

June 2013

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 June 2014

To What extent is there conflict in the UK  between judges and government ministers?

June 2015

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 June 2016

To what extent are judges better guardians of rights and civil liberties than Parliament or the executive?


Constitutions Past Paper Questions

June 2010 The British Constitution

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

A Possible Codified Constitution for the UK

Jack Straw, the Justice Secretary, has used a visit to Washington to hint that Britain could finally get a codified constitution spelling out citizens’ rights and codifying this country’s political system. He is already working on a new Bill of Rights and Responsibilities, clearly defining people’s relationship to the state, as part of a wide-ranging package of constitutional reform. But he has, for the first time, also said that the Bill could be a step towards a fully codified constitution to ‘bring us in line with the most progressive democracies around the world’.

Britain’s constitution has developed in a haphazard fashion, building on common law, conventions, case law, historical documents, Acts of Parliament and European legislation. It is not set out clearly in any one document. Nor is there a single statement of citizens’ rights and freedoms. As Jack Straw put it yesterday: ‘Most people might struggle to put their finger on where their rights are’.

Supporters argue that producing such a document could tackle disillusionment with politics, at the same time as setting new, clear limits on the power of the executive. Opponents of a codified constitution argue, ‘If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it,’ insisting that the existing arrangements, however piecemeal their development has been, have worked well in practice. There are, moreover, formidable practical problems to be overcome before such a document could be drawn up.

Source: adapted from an article by Nigel Morris in The Independent, 14 February 2008

a) With reference to the source, describe three sources of the UK constitution. (5 Marks)

b)With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain the arguments in favour of a codified constitution for the UK. (10 Marks)

c) Make out a case against the adoption of a codified constitution for the UK. (25 Marks) 

Essays on Constitutional Reform – June 2009

Constitutional reform since 1997 has not gone far enough.’ Discuss. (40 Marks)

January 2010 – The advantages of a codified constitution now outweigh its disadvantages’. Discuss.  (40 Marks)

January 2011 – The UK constitution is no longer fit for purpose.’ Discuss.  (40 Marks)

June 2011

To what extent has the location of sovereignty in the UK changed in recent years?  (40 Marks)

 January 2012

To what extent have constitutional reforms since 1997 reduced the powers of UK governments?  (40 Marks)

June 2012

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a) With reference to the source outline two constitutional reforms proposed by David Miliband. (5 Marks)

b) With reference to the source and your own knowledge, explain the arguments in favour of introducing a codified constitution. (10 Marks)

c) To what extent have the coalition government’s proposals to reform the UK constitution been controversial? (25 Marks)

January 2013

To what extent have the constitutional reforms introduced since 1997 made the UK more democratic? (40 Marks)

June 2013

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June 2014

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June 2015

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June 2016

‘Arguments in favour of further constitutional reform are more convincing than those against.’ Discuss. (40 marks)

PM & Cabinet Past Paper Questions

June 2009: Prime Ministerial Power

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

For centuries Prime Ministers have exercised authority in the name of the monarchy without the people or their elected representatives being consulted. So now I propose that in key areas important to our national life, the Prime Minister and executive should surrender or limit their powers. The exclusive exercise of these powers by the Government should have no place in a modern democracy.

These include:

the power of the executive to declare war – Blair over Kosovo (1998), Eden over Suez (1956) and Thatcher over the Falklands (1982). Even in circumstances where parliament has been consulted, such as Iraq in 2003, the legal authority for the exercise of war powers resides with the Prime Minister.

the power to request the dissolution of Parliament – the timing of a dissolution is particularly important. A PM will seek to chose a date most likely to yield electoral victory (Thatcher in 83 & 87, Blair in 2001 and 2005).

the power over recall of Parliament  – Blair over the Omagh Bombing  – 1998 – and 9/11. Cameron over the death of Margaret Thatcher in 2013 and Chemical Weapons attacks in Syria, also 2013.

the power of the executive to ratify international treaties Brown over Lisbon 2007

the power to make key public appointments without effective scrutiny – for example appointments to the security services

the power to restrict parliamentary oversight of the intelligence services – for example by redacting documents on grounds of national security or controlling the circumstances under which witnesses give evidence before the Intelligence and Security Committee (established 1994)

the power to choose bishops – & of course the power to appoint peers

the power to appoint judges – in conjunction with the JAC (The Judicial Appointments Commission)

I now propose to surrender or limit these powers to make for a more open twenty-first century British democracy.

Adapted from Gordon Brown, speech in Parliament, July 3rd 2007.

a) With reference to the source, outline the reasons Gordon Brown gave for proposing that prime ministerial powers be surrendered or limited. (5 Marks)

b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain the ways in which Prime Ministers are able to control Parliament. (10 Marks)

c) To what extent has prime ministerial power grown in recent years? (25 Marks)

June 2010: The Prime Minister and the Cabinet

Study the following two passages and answer the questions that follow.

Source 1: A Cabinet Meeting

The Prime Minister’s Spokesman began by giving a brief summary of Cabinet of the previous day to the assembled press. Cabinet had met for an hour and 40 minutes that morning. There had been the usual update from Geoff Hoon (Leader of the House of Commons) on parliamentary business, there had been a brief discussion on the Draft Legislative Programme being published tomorrow and there was an update from the Foreign Secretary on the situation in Burma. Most of the Cabinet was spent discussing the economy in a discussion led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, where he emphasised the global nature of the economic situation we were facing at the moment – not only the global credit crunch, but also rising oil and food prices.

Source: Prime Minister’s Office press briefing, 14 May 2008

Source 2 Gordon Brown’s First Cabinet

Gordon Brown unveiled an almost completely new Cabinet today as he attempted to make good on his pledge for a ‘politics of change’ after the Blair years, including Britain’s first ever female Home Secretary and its youngest Foreign Secretary for 30 years. As part of a huge overhaul, the Prime Minister appointed Jacqui Smith, formerly the Chief Whip, as Home Secretary, and David Miliband as Foreign Secretary. As head of the Home Office, Ms Smith will be in charge of the battle against terrorism, national security and policing. Standing outside the Foreign Office, Mr Miliband – who was himself widely tipped as Mr Brown’s rival for the Labour leadership, before ruling himself out – said: ‘I’m tremendously honoured’.

Source: adapted from ‘Brown shuffles the pack for new Cabinet’ in Times Online, 28 June 2007

a) With reference to Source 1, describe two types of issues discussed by the Cabinet. (5 marks)

b) With reference to Source 2, and your own knowledge, what factors does the Prime Minister take into account when appointing cabinet ministers? (10 Marks)

c) To what extent is the Cabinet an important body? (25 Marks)

January 2011 Prime Ministerial Power:

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

It is often asserted that ‘the British prime minister is as powerful as he or she wants to be’. Margaret Thatcher wanted to be dominant and ensured this by removing her political opponents in the cabinet and replacing them with people she could rely on. Tony Blair similarly strengthened his position by including his closest allies in the cabinet. Prime ministers who want to be dominant will take their prerogative powers and stretch them to the limits. This can also be seen in the area of foreign affairs. Both Tony Blair and Gordon Brown spent much time attempting to take a leading role in world affairs, including conducting wars and negotiating international treaties.

This picture may nevertheless be misleading. There are powerful forces which can be ranged against them. The prime minister’s cabinet colleagues can turn against him or her, as occurred with Thatcher in 1990. In the case of Blair, his position was undermined by growing criticism within the party, particularly after the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The media, too, can become hostile. Brown received unfavourable press coverage and he was presented as a weak and indecisive leader. A prime minister’s strength also depends on many factors beyond his or her direct control. These include the size of the parliamentary majority and the course of world events.

a) With reference to the source, describe two limitations on prime ministerial power. (5 Marks)

b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain the prime minister’s prerogative powers. (10 Marks)

c) To what extent can the Prime Minister control the Cabinet? (25 Marks)

June 2012: Prime Minster & Cabinet

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow Extracts from the Coalition Agreement for Stability and Reform, May 2010 

Screen Shot 2017-04-07 at 3.48.59 PM.png 

a) With reference to the source outline how coalition government has affected appointments to the cabinet. (5 Marks)

b) With reference to the source and your own knowledge explain why collective responsibility is an important aspect of UK government (10 Marks)

c) How important is the cabinet? (25 Marks)

January 2013 – Prime Ministerial Power

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

The decision to introduce fixed-term Parliaments was one of the key features of the coalition agreement between the Conservative and Liberal Democrat parties in 2010. The policy was, in due course, enacted through the Fixed-Term Parliament Act, 2011. The introduction of fixed-term Parliaments had long been advocated by the Liberal Democrats. It is often claimed that the reform will reduce prime ministerial power, because it means that prime ministers are no longer able to use their prerogative power to dissolve Parliament and call a general election when events turn in their favour. But a fixed five-year Parliament also means that they can plan ahead to complete their programme by a known date in the future.

The issue of fixed-term Parliaments is part of a long-running debate about how powerful UK prime ministers are. In addition to chairing cabinet meetings and controlling the cabinet system, prime ministers have attracted increasing media focus and become the ‘brand image’ of their party at election time. Some commentators have gone as far as to claim that UK prime ministers have, effectively, become ‘presidents’. Concern about the growing powers of the prime minister has led, amongst other things, to calls for a fully codified written constitution, which would outline the role and responsibilities of the prime minister and government. This would establish clear guidelines for the exercise of prime ministerial powers, rather than allowing the prime minister to determine his or her own role as he or she sees fit.

Source: Edexcel, 12 October 2011.

(a) With reference to the source, describe how the introduction of fixed-term Parliaments affects prime ministerial power. (5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source and your own knowledge, explain three reforms, other than fixed-term Parliaments, which could limit the powers of the prime minister. (10 Marks)

(c) To what extent have UK prime ministers become more ‘presidential’? (25 Marks)

Essays on Prime Ministerial Power

January 2010: To what extent does the prime minister dominate the political system in the UK? (40 marks)

June 2011: Is the UK Prime Minister now effectively a president? (40 Marks)

January 2012: Are UK prime ministers as powerful as is sometimes claimed? (40 Marks)

June 2013: Has the experience of coalition government strengthened or weakened prime ministerial power? (40 Marks)

June 2014

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June 2015 To what extent modern Prime Ministers presidents in all but name? (40 Marks)

June 2016

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Parliament Past Paper Questions

Note these are a mixture of 40 Mark essays and 5, 10 and 25 Mark Source based questions.

June 2009: The role of Parliament

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Citizens need an effective Parliament. They need a body that can call the government to account, that can ensure that government answers for its actions and the actions of civil servants. They need a body that can scrutinise and, if necessary, change the legislative proposals brought forward by government. They need a body that can ensure that their voice is heard by government when they have a grievance, be it about the impact of a policy or the absence of a policy. They need the security of knowing that, if there is a problem, there is a body to which they can turn for help, a body that can force public officials to listen.

Government needs an effective Parliament. It needs it because its authority derives from Parliament. The more government distances itself from Parliament, the more it undermines popular consent for the system of government. It needs Parliament to give its approval to measures and, prior to doing so, to scrutinise those measures.

Adapted from Report of the Commission to Strengthen Parliament.

(a) With reference to the source, describe three functions of Parliament. (5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain why government needs an effective Parliament. (10 Marks)

(c) Analyse the main factors that limit the effectiveness of Parliament.(25 Marks)

January 2010: Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow. White Paper on reform of the House of Lords

This White Paper sets out the government’s proposals for a reformed second chamber of the UK Parliament. The proposals are based on the House of Commons votes for an 80% or 100% elected second chamber and follow cross-party talks on how this could be achieved. The White Paper makes proposals for reform in a number of areas:

Role and composition

The House of Lords plays a valuable role in holding the government to account and revising legislation. The reforms would strengthen those roles and make the second chamber more accountable. The House of Commons would continue to be the primary chamber in the UK legislature.

Membership of the chamber

The proposed reforms would create a second chamber with directly elected members, which would be smaller than the House of Commons. The remaining rights of hereditary peers to sit and vote in the second chamber would be removed.

Powers of the new chamber

The government proposes no changes to the powers of a reformed second chamber.

The possible role of appointed members to ensure independence

If it is decided that there should be a 20% appointed element, the government proposes that its key purpose would be to provide a significant independent element in the second chamber. A statutory appointments commission would seek nominations and applications for membership. The government is also proposing changes to the arrangements for eligibility, remuneration and accountability.

Source: White Paper, An Elected Second Chamber, July 14, 2008.

(a) With reference to the source, what changes to the second chamber are proposed? (5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain the arguments for a fully or partly elected second chamber. (10 Marks)

(c) Make out a case against an elected second chamber.(25 Marks)

January 2011 House of Commons

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Extracts from three days proceedings of the House of Commons

January 12, 2010

x Questions to the Secretary of State for Health

x Third Reading of the Personal Care at Home Bill

January 13, 2010

x Questions to the Secretary of State for Scotland

x Questions to the Prime Minister

x Opposition Motion presented by the Leader of the Opposition: ‘That this House notes with concern the increase in the number of young people not in employment, education or training….[continued]’

x Report presented by the Select Committee on Foreign Affairs on global security in Afghanistan and Pakistan

January 14, 2010

x Public Bill Committee on the Financial Services Bill to consider proposed amendments to clause 26.

Source:, January, 2010.

(a) With reference to the source, describe two functions of the House of Commons.(5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain how the House of Commons can control the power of government. (10 Marks)

(c) To what extent is the House of Commons effective in carrying out its various functions? (25 Marks)

June 2011 Parliamentary reform

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Extracts from the document: ‘The Coalition: our programme for government ’.

We will establish five-year fixed term Parliaments. We will put a binding motion before the House of Commons stating that the next general election will be held on the first Thursday of May, 2015. Following this motion, we will legislate to make provision for fixed term Parliaments of five years.

We will bring forward a Referendum Bill on electoral reform, which includes provision for the introduction of the Alternative Vote in the event of a positive result in the referendum, as well as for the creation of fewer and more equal sized constituencies.

We will bring forward early legislation to introduce a power of recall, allowing voters to force a by-election where an MP is found to have engaged in serious wrongdoing.

We will establish a committee to bring forward proposals for a wholly or mainly elected upper chamber on the basis of proportional representation.

We will bring forward proposals… for reform to the House of Commons… starting with the proposed committee for management of backbench business. A House Business Committee, to consider government business, will be established by the third year of the Parliament.

We will ensure that any petition that secures 100,000 signatures will be eligible for public debate in Parliament.

Source: ‘The Coalition: our programme for government’, Cabinet Office, May 2010 © Crown copyright 2010

(a) With reference to the source, describe three proposals that seek to strengthen parliamentary representation by increasing popular participation. (5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source, and your own knowledge, explain how three of these proposals seek to make government more accountable to Parliament. (10 Marks)

(c) To what extent will the coalition government’s proposals bring about an effective reform of Parliament? ( 25 Marks)

January 2012 Parliament:

Study the following passage and answer the questions that follow.

Select Committees

There is a House of Commons select committee for each government department, examining three aspects: spending, policies and administration. These departmental select committees have a minimum of 11 members, who decide upon a line of inquiry and then gather written and oral evidence. Findings are reported to the Commons, printed, and published on the Parliament website. The government then usually has 60 days to reply to the committee’s recommendations.

Following the adoption by the House of Commons of recommendations from the Reform of the House of Commons Committee:

x Departmental select committee chairs are elected by their fellow MPs

x A backbench business committee has been established with the ability to schedule business in the Commons chamber and in Westminster Hall on days, or parts of days, set aside for non-government business.

Legislative committees

Both Houses of Parliament refer legislation to committees for detailed discussion and approval. These committees are part of the process of making laws. They scrutinise proposed laws and may consider amendments to improve the legislation. Amendments approved in legislative committees must be approved by the whole House.

Source: adapted from, October, 2010.

(a) With reference to the source, why are legislative committees needed? (5 Marks)

(b) With reference to the source and your own knowledge, explain the ways in which backbench MPs can call government to account. (10 Marks)

(c) To what extent has the formation of a coalition altered the relationship between Parliament and government? (25 Marks)

January 2013

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a) With reference to the source, outline two criticisms of David Cameron’s appointments to the House of Lords. (5 Marks)

b) With reference to the source and your own knowledge, explain three considerations that are taken into account when appointing life peers. (10 Marks)

c) Assess the arguments in favour of a largely or wholly elected second chamber. (25 Marks)


June 2010 To what extent does Parliament control executive power? (40 Marks)

January 2012 To what extent has the location of sovereignty in the UK changed in recent years? (40 Marks)

(Also could be seen as a constitutions question)

 June 2013

‘The House of Lords is now more effective than the House of Commons in checking government power.’ Discuss. (40 Marks)

June 2014

Parliament carries out none of its functions adequately. Discuss. (40 Marks)

June 2015

The House of Commons is in greater need of Reform than the House of Lords. Discuss. (40 Marks)


Pressure Groups PPQs

a) Using examples, distinguish between a sectional and promotional pressure groups. (5 Marks)

a) What is meant by pluralism? (5 Marks)

a) Using examples distinguish between insider and outsider pressure groups. (5 Marks)

a) Distinguish between pluralism and elitism. (5 Marks)

a) Outline two differences between pressure groups and political parties. (5 Marks)

a) Using examples, distinguish between promotional and sectional pressure groups. (5 Marks)

a) How do pressure groups promote functional representation? (5 Marks)

a) What is the link between pluralism and pressure groups? (5 Marks)

a) Describe two ways in which pressure groups promote political participation. (5 Marks)

a) What is pluralist democracy? (June, 2014) (5 Marks)

a) Outline TWO differences between sectional and promotional pressure groups. (June 2015) (5 Marks)

a) Using examples identify two functions of pressure groups. (June 2016) (5 Marks)

b) Explain the methods used by pressure groups to influence government. (10 marks)

b) Why is it sometimes difficult to distinguish between pressure groups and political parties? (10 marks)

b) Explain three political functions of pressure groups. (10 marks)

b) How and why do some pressure groups use direct action? (10 marks)

b) Explain three factors which may restrict the influence of a pressure group. (10 marks)

b) Explain why different pressure groups use different methods to achieve their aims. (10 marks)

b) Explain three reasons why pressure group activity may undermine democracy. (10 marks)

b) Using examples explain three reasons why pressure groups may fail to achieve their objectives (June 2014) (10 marks)

b) Using examples, explain three methods used by pressure groups to achieve their objectives (June 2015) (10 marks)

b) Explain why some pressure groups choose to use illegal methods (June 2016) (10 marks)

c) To what extent do pressure groups promote pluralist democracy? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent have pressure groups become more important in recent years? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent do pressure groups promote political participation in the UK? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent do pressure groups undermine democracy? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent are the largest pressure groups the most successful ones? (25 Marks)

c) Is pressure group politics in the UK better described as pluralist or elitist? (25 Marks)

c) Are pressure groups becoming more powerful, or less powerful? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent do pressure groups strengthen pluralist democracy? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent is the success of pressure groups a reflection of their level of public support? (25 Marks)

c) To what extent do pressure groups undermine democracy? (June 2014) (25 Marks)

c) Do pressure groups concentrate or distribute power (June 2015) (25 Marks)

c) To what extent has the power and influence of pressure groups changed in recent years? (June 2016) (25 Marks)