Key terminology: human rights International law; International Court of Justice (ICJ); International Criminal Court (ICC); International tribunals; Human rights/ Universal human rights; Humanitarian intervention
Key terminology: environmental United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC); Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC); Global commons; Tragedy of the commons; Sustainability/ Sustainable development.
3.1 Human rights
3.1.1 Origins and development of international law and institutions (International Court of Justice, International Criminal Court, special UN tribunals and European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) in creating the concept of global politics.
• Sources of authority, including the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
3.1.2 The key issues of these institutions in dealing with human rights:
• impact on state sovereignty
• rise of humanitarian interventions and growth in 1990s, with examples of successful and unsuccessful intervention
• reasons for selective interventionism, development of responsibility to protect and conflict with state sovereignty
• examples of alleged Western double standards/hypocrisy.
3.2.1 The role and significance of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
• The creation of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its role and significance.
3.3 The ways and extent to which these institutions address and resolve contemporary global issues, such as those involving conflict, poverty, human rights and the environment.
3.3.1 How the following issues affect international law from effectively addressing and resolving the issues above:
• debate about the effectiveness and implications for state sovereignty and the extent to which international law is accepted and enforced
• performance of the international courts, including controversies.
3.3.2 How the following issues affect global environmental governance from effectively addressing and resolving the issues above:
• competing views about how to tackle environmental issues to include:
(a) shallow-green ecology versus deep-green ecology
(b) sustainable development and tragedy of the commons.
• Strengths and weaknesses of international agreements, including key highlights from Rio, Kyoto, Copenhagen, Paris.
• Obstacles to international co-operation and agreement, including sovereignty, developed versus developing world division and disagreement over responsibility and measurement.
3.3.3 The role and significance of the global civil society and non-state actors, including non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in addressing and resolving the issues above.