Representation & Democracy


The UK is a representative democracy.  This means that we elect officials to represent us and make decisions on our behalf.  We elect MPs to represent us in Parliament, councillors to represent us in our local councils and MEPs to represent us in the European Parliament.  In Scotland and Wales citizens elect MSPs and AMs to represent them in the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly.  In many cities, Mayors are elected too.

In a direct democracy (such as the one which operated in ancient Athens) citizens voted on every issue which concerned them.  This is considered unworkable in modern states and only really continues to exist in a few places, township meetings in New England for example.  It does, however, remain in the form of the referendum and other forms of direct or popular democracy.

Exam Focus

Each topic at AS and A2 requires a confident and articulate grasp of core concepts. The main concepts likely to form the basis of the exam questions (and which are most directly examined in the part a) questions on Unit one for Representation and Democracy are as follows:

Democracy system of government based upon consent and the will of the people. May be direct (Self governance/self rule (Athens, Paris Commune), or more often Representative (Representative bodies, fair and free regular elections, element of competition between parties and policies)

Direct Democracysee above. Also Referenda (Devolution, AV, Elected Mayors, Scottish Independence, Brexit Referendum, June 2016 etc). Also involves recall, initiatives. Used widely in the USA at state level and Switzerland. Impractical to have genuine direct democracy in modern political systems with large population – therefore Rep. Dem may be supplemented with devices of DD. No separate class of professional politicians. Self governance.

Representative DemocracyRepresentative democracy is type of democracy where there are fair, free & regular elections to a range of representative bodies. (Westminster HOC, Local Authorities, Devolved Parliaments and Assembles, Directly elected Mayors, The European Parliament). Under the Fixed Terms Parliament Act (2011) elections to the Westminster Parliament (House of Commons) must take place every 5 years. The last such election took place in May 2015. Elections are Based on near universal suffrage, where there a few exceptions to the right to vote (Under 18, prisoners, Peers in General Elections). Elections also take place to other representative bodies including the devolved Parliaments and Assemblies (Last elections in 2016) or the European Parliament  (Last elections in 2014). There are also a range of different electoral systems (FPTP, AMS, STV) to produce different balances of representation. Representative democracy involves participation which is Limited, infrequent and brief. Elections provide peaceful means of transition between governments.

Liberal Democracyboth LIBERAL & DEMOCRATIC FEATURES. Democratic features as per above. LIBERAL FEATURES. Distribution of power and party competition, constitutional checks and balances, rule of law, tolerance, pluralism and diversity, free press, civil liberties and freedoms. (Human Rights Act, 1998)

Parliamentary Democracyregular fair and free elections to a representative body in this case parliament and specifically the HOC; rests upon notions of popular consent, electoral legitimacy, strong MP constituency link and provides a balance between elite professional rule and popular participation. Parliament is said to represent the balance of opinion in the country following an election. Parliament has sovereign powers but there are also checks, balances and constraints placed upon it. Government is drawn from parliament and accountable to it.

Democratic Legitimacy lawful exercise of power based on ‘right’ to exercise power. Based on rule of law and is a crucial source of political stability. Usually conferred by election and the securing of a mandate (popular consent). Could be conferred by constitutional legitimacy. E.G. Brown replacing Blair (2007) Major replacing Thatcher (1990) or  May replacing Cameron (2016). Constitutionally this is legitimate without an election in the British System of Government. Legitimacy is subject to continuous or periodic consent e.g. fixed elections and there is a debate as to whether Theresa May has a mandate (and therefore the legitimacy) to take the UK out of the single market.

Mandatepermission or legitimacy to govern. Usually secured via election and popular consent. Manifesto commitments are seen to be given a mandate when the party proposing them gains a parliamentary majority. Mandate may come into question under minority governments, coalition, confidence and supply arrangements or informal agreements between parties when their is no overall majority. Mandate is assumed through clear decisive majority in parliament and plurality of the vote. A Party does not require 50% support of the electorate to claim a mandate. (NB – no party since the war has achieved 50 of the popular vote.

Referendumpopular vote on a YES/NO basis on some binary issue such as Scottish Independence or the IN/OUT referendum on the EU. These are Single issue and require an Act of Parliament to be held – e.g, Scotland and Wales (Referendums) Act 1997 or the European Union Referendum Act 2015. Referendums are advisory rather than binding due to parliamentary sovereignty. Often low turnout (AV 41%, Wales Devolution 50.4%) but sometime high – GFPA 1998 (81%)  or Scottish Independence (85%). Significant increase in the use of Referenda since 1997. Often held on issues of constitutional significance, but not always. May be used to settle internal party disputes (EEC under Wilson, 1975) (and now Cameron over Brexit 2016) or coalition differences (AV-2011) or disputes between regional government and central government (Scottish independence)

Recallthe process whereby a popular vote is held within a constituency to remove a sitting MP between elections. Recall of MPs Act 2015. This can take place where a sitting MP is imprisoned or suspended from sitting in parliament by the speaker for more than 21 days. A petition is raised in the MPs constituency and more than 10% of constituents must sign to trigger a by-election. The recalled MP can still take part in the by-election. Constituent trust over their elected representatives following the expenses scandal in 2009 appears to be the trigger for this reform. Jacob Rees-Mogg and Zac Goldsmith were particularly critical of the restrictive way in which government had enacted this legislation.

Democratic Deficit  – a circumstance, or set of circumstances, in which democracy is seen to be failing. There are many aspects of the UK’s system which could be said to amount to a democratic deficit. Unelected HOL; FPTP*; Apathy and low turnout; lack of political education and understanding; remote and unaccountable EU and domestic political institutions; Absence of difference between the parties; Social representation of women and ethnic minorities in parliament and cabinet, the civil service and the judiciary; Corruption in high office; biased media/judiciary; Unelected Head of State; Insider PG dominance and corporate dominance over Government (Monbiot – Captive State – The Corporate takeover of Britain, 2000).

*Note from 2015 GE UKIP 12.4% of vote, 1 seat, SNP 4.7 % 56 seats –  is this not profoundly undemocratic? Also 63.1 % did not vote Conservative, yet they obtained a majority of 12 seats on 36.9% of the vote or just 24.4% of the electorate as a whole.

Simple Plurality  – the general principle for electing MPs and forming governments. An MP does not need a majority of his/her constituents votes to be elected, merely more than any other single candidate. Similarly governments are often formed on the basis of a plurality of the vote e.g Conservatives 2015 GE, 36.9% – more than any other party but NOT a majority. FPTP then often translates this into a majority of seats.

Political participation – there are a number of modes of political participation. 1. Voting in elections to elect representatives to a variety of representative bodies. 2. Voting in a referendum. 3. Joining a pressure group and taking part in a range of pressure group activities. 4. Spontaneous participation. 5 Citizen Juries. 6. focus groups. 7. joining a political party, volunteering, canvassing, attending constituency meetings, participating in leadership elections.

EXAM FOCUS – The a) Questions

Thus the ‘a) questions ‘ for representation and democracy have been as follows

a) What are the main features of representative democracy? (5 Marks)

a) Define Liberal democracy (5 Marks)

a) Define Direct democracy (5 Marks)

a) What is meant by legitimacy? (5 Marks)

a) How do elections promote democracy? (5 Marks)

a) Outline the key features of a referendum. (5 Marks)

a) Define Democratic legitimacy and one way in which it is achieved. (5 Marks)

a) Outline two features of the UK’s system of parliamentary democracy. (5 Marks)

a) Using an example define direct democracy. (5 Marks)

a) Outline two ways other than voting in elections and referendums in which people can participate in politics

a) Define democratic and legitimacy and two ways in which it is achieved

a) Outline two features of Parliamentary democracy

As a general rule of thumb I advise my students the following in relation to a) questions across all the AS topics (both Unit 1 & 2)

Q1 AO1 5 MARKS – 5 MINUTES, but try to get it down in 3/4 MINUTES

This brief question should only take you 5 minutes and is marked according to Assessment Objective One [AO1]. This means that to gain full marks you need to “demonstrate accurate and relevant factual knowledge [defining terms / concepts; providing examples; describing institutions / processes; identifying arguments / theories etc”. In order to achieve 5/5 the examiners would expect “detailed and / or developed knowledge”. You can access 5/5 by making 5 different points ( For example 5 features of liberal democracy in response to the question define liberal democracy) or by providing 2 features in detail where questions specify two features and then by developing them further. Obviously questions that ask for an example must include one. A very good way of achieving 5/5 is to answer the question in the first sentence and then develop it with further explanation and examples:

For example “A pressure group is an organisation that represents either a cause or a section of society and seeks to put pressure on those in authority/government to adopt the policies that they support” would be a good opening sentence which you could then take further by distinguishing, with examples, between cause and sectional pressure groups and then showing how they seek to influence the public in favour of their point of view and do not aim to establish a government.

Whenever you make a point in the exam you must immediately support it with detail; if you do not you will not be given marks for it. For example, if you stated that the 1983 General Election provided an example of adversarial politics you would then have to provide evidence to explain why this was the case. Leave nothing to chance, therefore, in your explanations!



This question is more challenging and 7 of the 10 marks will be awarded for AO1 and 3 will be awarded for AO2.

This means you will have two marks on this question. AO1, examines “accurate and relevant factual knowledge”, but AO2 takes this further and requires that candidates show the “ability to explain, not just describe [giving reasons for, or causes of, something; showing how something works]”.

This means that candidates do not simply explain an issue, but they also provide some ANALYSIS as well.

Main features of the UK’s Democratic System

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.28.41 AM.png3 Ways to Improve Democracy

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.30.15 AM.png

3 Ways to participate in democracy

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.31.41 AM.png3 strengths of representative democracy

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.32.59 AM.pngArguments in favour of lowering the voting age

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.34.17 AM.png

Also note 58% turnout of 18-24 Olds in 2015 General Election, compared to 44% in 2005.

3 Arguments in favour of compulsory voting:

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.35.33 AM.png3 Circumstances in which referenda are held – See referenda notes above

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.36.30 AM.png3 ways to introduce digital democracy

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.37.35 AM.pngThis needs fleshing out with detail.

3 criticisms of representative democracy

Screen Shot 2017-01-26 at 5.38.55 AM.png

See Democratic Deficit above… also note turnout at successive general elections 2001 59.4%, 2005, 61.4%, 2010 65.1% and 2015 66.1% (slight improvement from 2001 to 2015 but below the historic levels of the 50s and 60s)

Finally on section B some recent 10 markers on representation and democracy

b) Explain THREE criticisms that have been made of referendums (June 2014)

b) Explain THREE ways in which representative democracy in the UK Could be improved (June 2015)

b) Explain THREE reasons why voting in the UK should be made compulsory (June 2016)



The essay question examines 3 Assessment Objectives for both the 25 and 40 mark questions.

AO1: Understanding and examples 8 MARKS / 20 MARKS

A02: Evaluation / Structure 9 MARKS / 12 MARKS

AO3: Clarity of writing and apt use of political vocabulary 8 MARKS / 8 MARKS

A good essay will have to show IMPRESSIVE FACTUAL UNDERSTANDING, combined with a great deal of INTERESTING DEBATE and an impressive OVERALL SENSE OF STRUCTURE. This means that the essay has a very clear introduction which sets out what the issues you are going to debate are and hints at which are the most significant:

Then there needs to be lots of evaluation and analysis and, at the end an intelligent and interesting conclusion. Throughout the essay you will need to be self consciously deploying appropriate words – thus in an essay on to what extent the UK is democratic it would be vital that you explain the significance of KEY TERMS such as LEGITIMACY.

If all of these criteria are fulfilled you will achieve highly on all the assessment objectives.


The Chief Examiner also points out that whatever essay you do you will be EXPECTED TO EVALUATE BOTH SIDES OF AN ARGUMENT AND IN YOUR CONCLUSION EXPLAIN CONVINCINGLY how you have arrived at that conclusion.

Here are some past paper C) questions on representation and democracy to consider.

(c) Evaluate the effectiveness of the various ways in which participation and democracy could be strengthened in the UK. Jan 2009

c)To what extent is there a democratic deficit in the UK? (25 marks)

c) Assess the arguments in favour of the greater use of direct democracy in the UK (25 marks)

c)How democratic is the UK? (25 marks)

c)To what extent would the wider use of referendums improve democracy in the UK? (25 marks)

c)To what extent does democracy in the UK suffer from a participation crisis? (25 marks)

c)How effectively does representative democracy operate in the UK? (25 marks)

c)Should referendums be more widely used in the UK? (25 marks)

c) Should direct democracy be more widely used in the UK? (25 Marks)

c)Assess the various measures, other than electoral reform, that have been suggested to improve democracy in the UK. (25 marks)

c) Assess the strengths of representative democracy as it operates in the UK (25 Marks, June 2014)

c) To what extent is there a democratic deficit in the UK. (25 Marks June, 2015)

c) To what extent have devolution and membership of the EU affected representative democracy in the UK?* (June 2016)

This question caused quite a a stir last year. At some point we will look at why it was actually a lot more straightforward than most candidates thought!








11 thoughts on “Representation & Democracy

  1. Hello, I really appreciate your documents on Conservatism, Liberalism and Socialism. Do you have any resources for unit 1 & 2 at all please, they are life savers! Thank you!

    • Hi Anna

      Please accept my apologies for the late approval of your comment and response. The short answer to your question is no. However. I have had many comments on these particular resources which for some strange reason baffle me – that being that they are hugely popular. They are actually no different from the notes posted on the website other than the format they are presented in.

      Your comment reminds me of course that there are different forms of presenting information that some students prefer over others. Whilst I am massively busy with my own students I am willing to try to find the time to produce similar documents for wider distribution so please watch this space as I rebuild and update the site. Don’t feel inhibited in reminding me if it’s not done soon. The resources are clearly appreciated so it’s obviously a good idea if I produce them for each topic.

      Kind regards, Dennis.

  2. Hello, thank you very much for responding and being willing to share your resources, that’s an incredibly kind offer for your to create these resources, I know we are reaching the busiest time of the academic year, so thank you again and I’ll watch this space! Anna

  3. Hello Dennis,

    Thank you for all your resources! I was just wondering if you ran any Easter revision sessions or long-distance tutoring at all to help prepare for exams?

    Thank you,

    • Hi Anna

      I am running Easter Revision sessions through the college I teach at, but only covering A2 Global Politics. The college is in London and I’m not sure where you are based. It is a private college and therefore charges pretty high fees for an Easter Revision course. One of the reasons I do the blog is to put something back into the large community of students who cannot access private education. I have been doing this a number of years, and I am an examiner so I feel bound to share my resources and insights. Long distance tutoring could be arranged but it’s not something I’ve really done before and I’m not sure how it would work. My time is obviously massively geared towards my own students from here through to June.

      Kind regards, Dennis.

  4. Hi Anna

    Are you a Faculty Head at a college in Bristol? I have a LinkedIn invite from someone and I think that may be you.

    Kind regards, Dennis.

    P.S. Apologies if this is a coincidence and unrelated to you.

  5. Aaah…the penny has dropped…I thought for some time you were a student. I take it that your interest is that some of your students are using the blog?


  6. Yes, I’m using it myself to study but have also passed it on to other students as it is just so useful and the quality of the revision documents in particular is just excellent!

  7. Hi Anna

    Glad you find the blog entries useful. I’ve still quite a bit of updating to do on the A2 side of things…which A2 route(s) do your students follow?

    Kind regards, Dennis.

  8. Hello, I’m going with aqa and ideologies so 3B/4B focusing on conservatism and socialism for the first paper and education and ethnicity & gender for the second paper. I’ve found your blue and red socialism and conservatism documents to be very useful for this spec too 😀

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